モリシップランの万葉集英訳

モリスのBILOG万葉紀行は「万葉の心」(Soul and spirit of Man-Yoh)を外国の人々に伝える“MAN-YOH-SHUH”

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Volume-1of the original Man-Yoh-Shuh: Poems Mostly with General and Versatile Themes (“Zohka”)and often attributed to Imperial Court Figures.
 ☆Princess Nukata’s poem
 ☆Emperor Tenmu’s poem
 ☆Empress Jito’s graceful poem
 ☆Kakinomoto-no Hitomaro’s poem
 ☆Kakinomoto-no Hitomaro’s poem (1-42)
 ☆Prince Naka-no Oh-e’s poem (1-15)
 ☆Isonokami-no Ohmaetsukimi’s poem (1-44)
 ☆Kakinomoto-no Hitomaro’s poem (1-48)
 ☆Takechi-no Kurohito’s poem (1-58)
 ☆Yamanoue-no Okura’s poem (1-63)

Volume-2: Love Songs (Sohmonka) or Elegies (Banka) often attributed Court Figures.
 ☆Ootomono Sukune’s poem (2-101)
 ☆Answer song by Koseno Iratsume (2-102)
 ☆Emperor Temmu’s poem (2-103)
 ☆Fujiwara-no Bunin’s poem (2-104)
 Prince Ohtsu-no Miko’s poem (2-109)
 Princess Tajima-no Himemiko’s poem (2-115) (NEW)
 Princess Tajima-no Himemiko’s poem (2-116) (NEW)
 Prince Hozumi’s elegy for Princess Tajima (2-203) (NEW)

Volume-3: Poems supplementary to above two items.
Volume-4: ditto plus Love Songs and Answer Songs (Hanka).
Volume-5: poems centering on Dazaifu District Government Office.
Volume-6: poems centering on Imperial Court.
Volume-7: poems often relating to travel.
Volume-8: Seasonal poems.
Volume-9: poems of travel and legends and folklore.
Volume-10: Seasonal poems.
Volume-11: Love Songs and Answer Songs.
Volume-12: ditto
Volume-13: mostly Choka (Long Songs).
Volume-14: Poems sung in Eastern country-side Provinces (“Azuma-Uta”)
Volume-15: miscl.
Volume-16: miscl.
Volume-17: poems attributed to Ootomo-no Yakamochi and his relations (up to Vol.20).
Volume-18: poems about life in Etchuu Province (today’s Toyama Pref. and vicinity).
Volume-19: miscl.
Volume-20: some poems by Sakimori soldiers included.
 ☆Ootomo-no Yakamochi’s poem (Vol.20-4516)
(This sorting is as per Mr. Nakanishi’s book)

万葉紀行 英語版スタート!

50年にわたる仕事生活を終えたのが5年前、それ以来、幼少期から学生時代にかけて大好きであった音楽、文芸、英語の世界に自分なりにのめり込む形でやっています。
私の会社生活終了後の名刺の裏には、個人的活動内容として、①船舶関連業務、②翻訳業務、③日本の歌の英語歌詞への「雰囲気訳」業務と記載しています。 いずれも業務とはいうものの、船については50年やっていた仕事の延長線上にある「頼まれ仕事」、②と③は、業務と言うより「好きな事を自由にやっている」という程度。 ただし思い入れだけは強い。 翻訳については、船関係のアメリカ人著者による小説二冊の連続翻訳。そして、このところ凝っているのが、万葉集の短歌の英語への「雰囲気訳」。
「雰囲気訳」と言うのは、私の勝手な造語であり、日本語の(それも当然ながら古語の)短歌を現代英語での詩に翻訳するのですが、その際、直訳、逐語訳ではなく、その歌の持つ雰囲気と作者の意図したであろう大意を大事にしながらの英語訳です。 言ってみれば、1300年前の歌人群の投げかけている「万葉の心」(Soul and spirit of Man-Yoh)を外国の人々に伝えようとする「シジフォスの石」的な作業です。
そして自分なりに短歌の雰囲気訳についてのルールを設定しています。それは:
(1)英語訳でも、短歌のきまりとしての、5-7-5-7-7の「三十一文字(ミソヒトモジ)」を、英単語の音節(syllable = シラブル)で構成することをできる限り守る。 ただし、日本の短歌においても「字余り」が認められている様で、特に「イ」の音は、「ア、ウ、エ、オ」に比べると、発音上、軽い様で、「イ」が入る場合は、字余りがしばしば起きる、ということが自然発生的にみられるらしい。 発音(英語であれ、日本語であれ)に関心がある私も同感するところなので、がちがちに縛るのではなく、基本的な枠組みとして捉えています。
(2)日本語の古語で書かれた万葉集の短歌においては「韻」を踏むことは通例ではないが、英語詩においては、ほとんどの場合、韻を踏ませています。これは、英米の現代歌(ジャズ、ポップス、バラード等)においても然りです。これは私の理解するところ、日本語詩の場合は、漢字なり単語なりの一つ一つが特有の語感を持っており、詩の作者も「語感の勝負」での詩作としているのに対し、英語詩にあっては、28個のアルファベット(A,B,C 等)の組み合わせで単語が出来ており、単語の語感が生まれにくく、詩としては、「音感で勝負」と言う点の違いであろうと思います。ということで、雰囲気訳の対象とした万葉短歌についてできる限りの韻を施しました。英語詩の踏韻については、ワーズワースやフィッツジェラルド、ボブ・ディラン等の多くの詩を参考としました。
これらのルールを踏まえつつ、「万葉の心」を伝えるのが「雰囲気訳」です。 現代の歌は勿論声に出して歌い、その全体像(メロディー、歌詞、歌手の声質)により「ステキッ!」となるものでありましょう。万葉集をはじめとする古代短歌、そして現・近代短歌にしても、書いたものを心の中で辿るよりも、本来は声に出して唄いあげるものでしょう。そうすることにより、神仏や自然に対する畏敬の念や、家族、恋人、友人に対する愛情の表現が「呼吸をする」ものとなるのではないでしょうか。短歌を声に出して唄う場合、日本人は万葉集の時代から(その前の原初の時代から?)、5-7-5-7-7 の音律で歌うのが、心もこもるし、リズムよく、そしてこころよく相手に伝わるものだ、と言うことを経験則、実体験として身に付けていた(いる)のではないでしょうか。せっかくの素晴らしい日本語の歌(短歌)も、逐語訳で英語に訳し、「意味するところはこれこれです」と外国に紹介したとしても心は伝わり切れません。躍動感、歓喜の心、恨み節等々、生の感情を伝えたいとの思いで、素人の私がチャレンジしようとしているのが雰囲気訳です。勿論、あてずっぽうではありません。 23.5年にわたる外国生活、外国の人達との交流、丁々発止の交渉、怒りをぶつける、喜びを分かち合う、と言った生活感から出て来る言葉を綴ってみました。加えて、英米の詩人群の作品を通して、「心」を掴もうとして来ました。それにしても私は所詮、日本の山と河に囲まれた村落に育ち、神戸、大阪、東京と言う大都市にも住んだ、日本人です。「日本人のこの心情は、きっとあのときロンドンで抱いたものに通じるだろうな」とか、「この日本の原風景こそ、ニューヨークの人達とシェアしたい」とか、「古の中国や朝鮮半島の人達の古代日本、やまとへの文化伝来は、今でも脈々と生きており、日本文化の根幹の一つにもなっているのだ、これを現代を生きる両民族の間で共有しよう」と言った、国際理解に繋がればとの願いを込めてまとめたものです。
再度申し上げますが、私は国文学者でも歴史学者でもありません。ただ常に一国の枠を超えた国際的、全地球的見地で日本の文化と各国の文化を勉強してきたものです。専門的な諸点で間違いもあろうかと思います、諸賢のご指導、ご鞭撻を伏してお願いするものであります。

A JOURNEY THROUGH A CLASSIC POETRY COLLECTION, “MAN-YOH-SHUH”
PREFACE
Have you heard about “Man-Yoh-Shuh”? It literally means “Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves”, and it points to not really ten-thousand, but about 4,500 poems created and sung during 6th to 7th centuries, said to have been chiefly compiled by Ootomo-no Yakamochi, a high Government officer and himself a conspicuous poet. The original book of this Collection has not ever been found anywhere anytime, but a number of handwritten copies were produced at different points in time after the original period, and remain in later times up till now.

It is a collection of poems (Chohka = Long Poem, and Tanka = Short Poem, – “Waka” in all, or “Japanese Songs”, literally) made by all the different people – different in social statuses, professions, genders, and sometimes anonymous – and “different people” include Emperors and Empresses, Nobilities and high-ranking government officers, consorts, soldiers, farmers and others. In that, I think Man-Yoh-Shuh is a truly unique literature work – unique in the world.

In this year, 2019 of the Western calendar year counts, a new era has started according to Japanese cultural heritage, and the name for the new era was proclaimed by the incumbent government as “Reiwa Jidai = Reiwa Era”. Any one Japanese Era is dedicated to each one Emperor or Empress, ruling, or sitting as symbol of, the state.

The word “Reiwa” is written with Chinese Characters (which were imported from China in the ancient times and since have been used in Japan traditionally for all the phases of life – literature, daily life, schooling, business, politics, and simply everything!) as 「令和」.

Each and every (mostly) Chinese Character (kanji) has a meaning one way or another (ideograph, as opposed to phonogram like alphabets), and Rei-wa means “Beautiful (Graceful) Harmony”, and is said to be taken from a graceful scene described in Man-Yoh-Shuh. A plum-flower viewing party was held each year at the start of the year in January or February, just ahead of cherry blossom season in March to April, at Dazaifu in norther part of Kyushu (now Fukuoka Pref.), which was an important (politically as well as culturally) front to deal with foreign affairs and cultural exchange with neighboring states in Continental China and Peninsular Korea.
Ootomo-no Tabito, father of Yakamochi, presided over a party and wrote an introductory greeting, introducing a group of poems created and announced by the people attending the party, and the whole scene was recorded in Man-Yoh-Shuh, and in this greeting he used poetic words including “Rei” (令) and “Wa” (和), and it is reported that scholars, Mr. Nakanishi Susumu in particular, made a recommendation to use these characters to form the name of the new era.
Suddenly, Man-Yoh-Shuh is receiving a lot of attention and popularity.

Preceding to the start of the new era, I had found interest in “Atmospheric Translation” (AT) (pardon my own coined expression!) of Japanese songs and poems, old and new, including Tankas, and listed some of them (firstly Japanese popular songs and folk songs) in my BILOG (Bilingual Log) (http://morishiplan.com ), and now decided to post AT’s of Man-Yoh-Shuh poems also on the same BILOG, so that friends who have interest in Japanese culture such as Tanka may understand better by reading Japanese texts as well as English versions of them.

Myself, I am not a linguist nor a literature scholar, but only a layman, or a dilettante, having keen interest (and perhaps pretty good experience) in liaising between Japanese/Asian culture and Western (English-language oriented) culture, wanted to show that Japan has a beautiful array of cultural heritage items – Tanka, Haiku, Historic tales, Novels, popular songs, folk songs, school songs, and hopefully people world over may enjoy reading and singing some of them, or even trying to make some Tankas and Haikus themselves.

I relied a lot on modern-time books and other media about Man-Yoh-Shuh as sources of interpretation of detailed meanings and the background of the poems and poets listed there in Man-Yoh-Shuh, and listed the sources and books with such precious information and guidance (all written in Japanese, of course) at the top of this piece of work, “Journey through Man-Yoh-Shuh”.

All the poems listed in this work were, in the original, created in Japanese language with the help of the already-then-available Chinese Characters during and around 7th century, and the language and words used there are, of course, all beautifully archaic, but in my AT’s, I used the mostly present-day English way of writing, although sometimes a mixture of colloquial and literary styles is employed.
I displayed the original Japanese language version of each poem, so that those capable of reading some archaic Japanese words may enjoy the comparison between the original and the AT’s. I also added the alphabetic writing of the original poems before the translation for those who may be interested.

I say AT (Atmospheric Translation), because I thought that translating Japanese poems on a word-to-word basis would be no fun to anybody – to you or to me! I struggled to express the words and phrases in each poem as loyally as possible but with some slight alterations which I believed would be best for the artistic atmosphere of the poem, and for the intent of the poet, and with some rhyme schemes built in to each poem, yet keeping as much as possible the phonetic structure of Tanka which is 5-7-5-7-7 syllables.

Furthermore, I’d like to add two things –
1.I live in Ichikawa City, Chiba Pref., and my apartment is situated in an area called Mama in the City. This area, Mama, looks to be quite an old place, as the name Mama appears in many poems of Man-Yoh-Shuh, especially connected to Maiden Tekona with a tragic folk tale, even preceding 7th century.
I live in a “mansion” (Japanese name for “apartment”, but far from mansion in the true sense of the word!?, although I love living there ) up in the forest of Mama-San, or Mama-Hill, and adjacent to our place is “Guhohji” Temple, a Buddhist temple with sublime structures and woody surroundings. There is a paved road below the temple (mostly pedestrian, but allowed for residents along to drive carefully), and on both sides of the road along starting below the stone stairs (going up to the temple grounds), leading on to the downtown, there are about a dozen panels pinned on the face of the house walls here and there. On each panel, a different piece of poem is written artistically with Japanese calligraphy brushes by different calligraphers, and all these poems are the ones quoted from Man-Yoh-Shuh, and perhaps half of them are the poems singing about local things like Mama Hill, Mama Inlet, Mama’s Plank Bridge and Mama’s mythical maiden Tekona. So, Mama as a whole and this road named Daimon Dohri Street seem to be popular visiting places for history- and poem-lovers.
I will be putting up photos of such panels on this essay here and there, as it fits.
2.It is not Mama alone that Man-Yoh-Shuh allocates stages to. Its poems go to different places all over Japan – many places other than Nara (the main stage) will join as the sites of the poems. Some of the locations you may find later will be Dazaifu in Kyushu, Toyama in Northeast of Tokyo, Shizuoka near Mt. Fuji, Shiga Pref. near Kyoto, etc., etc. Kyoto in itself was yet to come appearing in Japan’s historical chronology, and you will find interesting to meet up with various places which had been prospering, or at least thriving with people’s life, before Kyoto’s age came. You may have a peek in how Japanese people lived in such ancient times.

So, you are welcome in joining my Journey Through Man-Yoh-Shuh on this BILOG, and you may even venture out yourself in actually visiting those places which are described as the backdrops and scenes for the poems. I will let you know with a hint and guide as each chance comes up. ―――

主要な典拠
小川靖彦氏著「万葉集 - 隠された歴史のメッセージ」
多田一臣氏編「万葉集ハンドブック」三省堂
中西進氏監修「図解雑学 楽しくわかる万葉集」ナツメ社